Hiran C. Fernando, MD, Sudish C. Murthy, MD, PhD, Wayne Hofstetter, MD, Joseph B. Shrager, MD, Charles Bridges, MD, ScD, John D. Mitchell, MD, Rodney J. Landreneau, MD, Ellen R. Clough, PhD, and Thomas J. Watson, MD. © 2009 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
STS Practice Guidelines are intended to assist physicians and other health care providers in clinical decision-making by describing a range of generally acceptable approaches for the diagnosis, management, or prevention of specific diseases or conditions. These guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other methods of care reasonably directed at obtaining the same results. Moreover, these guidelines are subject to change over time, without notice. The ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be made by the physician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient.
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Practice Guidelines may be printed or downloaded for individual and personal use only. Guidelines may not be reproduced in any print or electronic publication or offered for sale or distribution in any format without the express written permission of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.