The Society’s 8 in 8 Series offers quick access to important topics in cardiothoracic surgery. Each informative video is narrated by an expert in the field and covers one topic using eight slides in 8 minutes. 

STS invites viewers to provide feedback, submit topics and ask questions. Please email

Please note: No CME credit is associated with the viewing of web-based content. STS retains sole rights to these materials.

8 in 8 Series: Professional Development

Professional Development and Academic Promotion for Advanced Practice Providers 
This 8 in 8 focuses on opportunities for professional development and career growth for advanced practice providers, including nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Topics include: 

  • Academic promotion 
  • Quality appointments or certification 
  • Grant funding 
  • Publications and presentation related recognition 
  • Preceptor award and recognition 
  • Society specific involvement or recognition 

Sarah Schettle, PA-C, MBA

Mayo Clinic

Want to further explore the topics mentioned and click the embedded links in the presentation? View the presentation.

How Cardiothoracic Surgeons Are Reimbursed
What is reimbursement? What is a salary? What is compensation? These terms are not interchangeable and there is no standard type of employment arrangement for surgeons. In fact, depending on the reimbursement model, the surgeon may not even have a salary. This video introduces the basics of surgeon salary and compensation, while also detailing two types of reimbursement models: one for an academic practice and another for a private practice. In addition, important questions about reimbursement that cardiothoracic surgeons should consider are shared. 

Megan Loo, MD, MPH

Keck School of Medicine of USC

Robbin G. Cohen, MD, MMM
Keck School of Medicine of USC

8 in 8 Series: Advocacy

The Missing Data: Why Medicare Claims Data Matter to You
Obtaining Medicare claims data to use with the STS National Database data is a top advocacy priority. With this data, clinician-led clinical data registries can facilitate outcomes-based research that improves health care quality and efficiency, as well as provide insight into appropriate Value-based reimbursement. This video examines the importance of registry access to Medicare claims data, current regulatory barriers, and how STS is advocating to improve access.

Alan M. Speir, MD

Chair, STS Council on Health Policy and Relationships

Grassroots Advocacy
Grassroots advocacy is ground-up support to advance a common goal. Participation by STS members in grassroots advocacy efforts is fundamental to helping the specialty, as well as improving access to quality care for cardiothoracic surgery patients. This video discusses the basics of grassroots advocacy, why it is important for members at every career level—from residents to experienced surgeons—to get involved, and how to get started with help from the STS Government Relations team.

Seth Wolf

University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine

Payment Bundling
The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) Advanced Model is part of continuing efforts by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to implement voluntary episode payment models. This video discusses the continuum of risk-based payment models, an overview of the BPCI Advanced program, winners and losers in this payment model, and opportunities for savings. 

Keith A. Horvath, MD

Association of American Medical Colleges

Disclaimer: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) did not produce or endorse these materials nor does CMS assume responsibility for or make any guarantees of the completeness, accuracy, or reliability of any information contained herein. 

STS-PAC is the only political action committee that exclusively represents cardiothoracic surgery and is the Society’s primary mechanism for influencing the policymaking process. This video defines the role of a political action committee and provides an overview of STS-PAC, including how it’s governed, who can contribute, how contributions are used, and accomplishments made possible through support from STS-PAC.

Keith S. Naunheim, MD

Chair, STS-PAC Board of Advisors
STS Past President 

Disclaimer: Contributions to STS-PAC are voluntary and not tax deductible for federal income tax purposes. You have the right to decline to contribute without any reprisal against your STS membership. Your contribution must be made using a credit card, check or money order, and must be drawn on a personal account to be used to support federal candidates. You must be a US citizen or lawfully admitted permanent US resident to contribute. Federal law requires us to use our best efforts to collect and report the name, mailing address, occupation, and name of employer of each individual whose contributions exceed $200 in a calendar year. Federal law prohibits STS and STS-PAC from soliciting contributions from persons outside STS’s restricted class. STS’s restricted class includes individuals who are dues-paying members or non-dues-paying members with voting rights, and who are US citizens or lawfully admitted permanent US residents.

8 in 8 Series: Critical Care

Optimizing Therapy Postoperatively After CABG
For patients to receive the maximal benefit after CABG and reduce the risk of major adverse events, adherence to post-discharge medications is essential. In this episode of the 8 in 8 Series, the presenters examine the data for post-op medication prescribing guidelines, including aspirin, statins, beta blockers, and more.

Subhasis Chatterjee, MD
Baylor College of Medicine

The Role of the CT Trainee in the ICU
This STS 8 in 8 shares 10 guidelines to consider as a thoracic surgery trainee in the Intensive Care Unit. Dr. Clauden Louis, a CT surgery fellow, offers his advice for young trainees to help them maximize their learning experience. 

Clauden Louis, MD, MS
Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard University

Hypoxemia During Veno-Venous ECMO 
Hypoxemia during veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mandates recognition and therapeutic management.  This STS 8 in 8 video identifies the basis of hypoxemia during VV-ECMO support, such as cannula recirculation and shunted blood. Viewers will also learn remediation management strategies.

Cory M. Alwardt, PhD, CCP

Mayo Clinic Arizona 

Rita K. Milewski, MD, PhD, MSEd
Yale University

Post-Cardiotomy Temporary Epicardial Pacing in the ICU
This video provides an overview of fundamental concepts, applications, and management of post-cardiotomy temporary epicardial pacing in the ICU setting. 

Topics include: 

  • Using pacing wires to improve a patient’s post-operative hemodynamics after aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass surgery
  • How to use the pacing box
  • Benefits of temporary epicardial pacing
  • Common pacing modes 
  • Bedside rescue of a malfunctioning lead

Rachel A. Beaupre, MD

Wayne State University Harper Hospital

Frank A. Baciewicz, MD
Wayne State University Harper Hospital

Choice of Technique in Tracheostomy
In this STS 8 in 8, Drs. Hayanga and Sanchez explore some of the differences and evidence behind the choice of tracheostomy in ECMO patients.

J. W. Awori Hayanga, MD, MPH

West Virginia University, Dept of Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery

Pablo G. Sanchez, MD, PhD
University of Maryland

Antithrombotic Medication Use After Bioprosthetic Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement
Although bioprosthetic surgical aortic valve replacement (bio-SAVR) is generally well-tolerated, patients are thought to be at increased risk of thromboembolism for up to 90 days following bio-SAVR, supporting the current guidelines recommending the use of an anticoagulation regimen for at least the first 3 months following bio-SAVR.  This video reviews the current guidelines, literature, and controversy regarding the topic of anticoagulation in bio-SAVR patients. 

Jennifer M. Abelson, MD, MBA, FACC 
Providence St. Peter Hospital

Michael S. Firstenberg, MD, FACC
The Medical Center of Aurora

Thromboelastogram in the ICU
Thromboelastogram (TEG) is a point of care test that helps tailor the resuscitation of cardiac patients. It is a valuable way to measure where a patient is on the hemostasis continuum from thrombosis to bleeding. TEG provides important information on the rate, strength, and stability of a blood clot. This video provides an overview of TEG, platelet mapping, a case study, and how to decide what products to transfuse.

Frank A. Baciewicz Jr., MD

Wayne State University Harper Hospital 

Nina Delavari, DO
Wayne State University Harper Hospital

Right Ventricular Failure in Cardiac Surgery
Right ventricular (RV) failure occurs when the right ventricle does not maintain enough blood flow through the pulmonary circulation to achieve adequate left ventricular filling. This video reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of RV failure after cardiac surgery.

Nathalie Roy, MD 

Harvard University, Boston Children’s Hospital

Hitoshi Hirose MD, PhD
Thomas Jefferson University

Opioid Reduction Strategies in Cardiac Surgery
Cardiac surgery is an underappreciated contributor to the opioid crisis, with patients commonly utilizing opioid prescriptions months after their index procedure. This video addresses the historical basis for opioid-based anesthesia and analgesia in cardiac surgery and describes five programmatic strategies to reduce the perioperative use of opioids.  

Michael C. Grant, MD, MSE
Johns Hopkins Medicine

ECMO Circuit Monitoring: The Essentials of Pressure and Flow 
Understanding the dynamics of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit pressure and flow is essential to guide decisions, including how much ECMO blood flow is appropriate during management, weaning, and specific clinical scenarios such as North-South or Harlequin syndrome. This video highlights the circuit-patient management interface for physicians.  

Rita Karianna Milewski, MD, PhD, MSEd

University of Pennsylvania

Cory M. Alwardt, PhD 
Mayo Clinic

Diagnostic Ultrasound for Postop Hypotension
Point-of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) is a bedside tool that increasingly is available in the health care setting. This video will demonstrate how to obtain images easily and how they can help clinicians diagnose and treat postoperative hypotension in critically ill patients.  

Jeffrey R. Kangas, MD

Detroit Medical Center

Frank A. Baciewicz Jr., MD
Wayne State University 

Toxicity of Inadequate Pericardial Drainage After Surgery: Implications for Patient Recovery
Postoperative atrial fibrillation is the most common complication following heart surgery. This video will describe potential inflammatory components that contribute to this problem found in the pericardial space.  

Spencer J. Melby, MD

Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University in St. Louis

Ideal Ventilatory Settings for Venovenous ECMO
This video sheds light on ventilatory management in the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), highlighting contemporary evidence to guide bedside decision-making.

J.W. Awori Hayanga, MD, MPH
West Virginia University Medicine

HelenMari Merritt-Genore, DO
Methodist Health System

Lactate and Cardiac Surgery
Lactate production is a consequence of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with elevated lactate levels have increased 30-day mortality. This video addresses the etiology of elevated lactate and aggressive treatment to ensure the best postoperative outcome.

Shahnur Ahmed 
Wayne State University 

Frank A. Baciewicz Jr., MD
Wayne State University 


Postoperative Delirium
This video highlights the importance of considering delirium as a medical emergency in the postoperative cardiac surgery patient. It defines postoperative delirium, identifies patients who are at risk, and explains the diagnostic process, as well as how to provide care.

Rita Karianna Milewski, MD, PhD, MSEd

University of Pennsylvania

Rakesh C. Arora, MD
University of Manitoba

Vasoplegic Shock
Vasoplegic shock after cardiopulmonary bypass is characterized by refractory hypotension and high cardiac output with systemic vasodilatation. It also is associated with increased mortality. In this video, the latest strategies to prevent, mitigate, and treat this common problem are discussed.

Subhasis Chatterjee, MD
Baylor College of Medicine

Joseph Rabin, MD

University of Maryland Medical Center


View Critical Care Deep Dive Series. 

8 in 8 Series: End-Stage Cardiopulmonary Disease

ECMO in Lung Transplantation
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an invaluable tool in lung transplantation. Originally developed to support patients in critical heart or respiratory failure, it often is used as a bridge to organ transplant, during lung transplant surgery, and for severe primary graft dysfunction. This video highlights the essentials of ECMO in lung transplantation with a focus on intraoperative management.

Mauricio Villavicencio, MD, MBA

Massachusetts General Hospital

LVAD Implantation via Thoracotomy
This video addresses the options for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation via thoracotomy and covers topics, including the benefits of different surgical approaches, cannulation strategies, and special considerations for patients with a short/leftward aorta, left internal mammary artery grafts, or mediastinal adhesions.

Jay D. Pal, MD

University of Colorado

8 in 8 Series: General Thoracic

Lung Resection in Patients with Marginal Pulmonary Function
This video covers risk assessment and stratification, as well as operative and non-operative treatment options for lung resection in patients with marginal pulmonary function. The presenters recommend that surgeons integrate all available data in a careful process of joint decision-making, resulting in an individualized approach that is compatible with the preferences and goals of the patient.

Janet P. Edwards, MD

University of Calgary

Robert E. Merritt, MD
Ohio State Wexner Medical Center