The Annals of Thoracic Surgery Editorial Board

EDITOR
G. Alexander Patterson

Emeritus Editors

L. Henry Edmunds Jr.
Thomas B. Ferguson
Herbert Sloan
John D. Steele

Deputy Editors

Adult Cardiac
Joanna Chikwe
John A. Kern
Jennifer S. Lawton
Nahush A. Mokadam

Congenital Heart
Yves d'Udekem
Jennifer C. Romano

General Thoracic
Shanda H. Blackmon
Mark K. Ferguson
Benjamin D. Kozower
James D. Luketich

Biostatistics
Graham Colditz

CME
Colleen G. Koch

Digital Media and Digital Scholarship
Thomas K. Varghese Jr.

Education
Wilson Y. Szeto

Public Policy
Alan M. Speir

Quality
David M. Shahian

Associate Editors

CME
Jessica S. Donington
Rick A. Esposito
Kirk R. Kanter
Feroze Mahmood
Nicholas G. Smedira

Ethics
Robert M. Sade

Surgical Heritage
Douglas J. Mathisen

Feature Articles
Gorav Ailawadi
Daniel J. Boffa
Derek R. Brinster
Robert D.B. Jaquiss
Virginia R. Litle
Mitchell J. Magee
Ourania Preventza
Marc Ruel
Jorge D. Salazar
Mark S. Slaughter
Bobby Yanagawa

Editorial Board Members

Jake H. Abernathy III
Mara B. Antonoff
Jehangir J. Appoo
Hisao Asamura
Ko Bando
Michael E. Bowdish
Alexander A. Brescia
Lisa M. Brown
Paulo F. Cardoso
Adriano Carotti
Ke-Neng Chen
Traves D. Crabtree
Elizabeth A. David
Emily A. Downs
Pirooz Eghtesady
Wentao Fang
Farhood Farjah
Felix G. Fernandez
Hiran C. Fernando
Victor A. Ferraris
Amy G. Fiedler
Seth D. Force
Mario F.L. Gaudino
Robert C. Gorman
Kristine J. Guleserian
T. Sloane Guy
Matthew G. Hartwig
George L. Hicks Jr.
Tain-Yen Hsia
G. Chad Hughes
Dawn S. Hui
S. Adil Husain
Jeffrey P. Jacobs
Tara Karamlou
Anthony W. Kim
Michael Lanuti
Damien J. LaPar
Eric J. Lehr
Scott A. LeMaire
Peter B. Licht
Jessica G.Y. Luc
Thomas E. MacGillivray
Nader Moazami
Susan Moffatt-Bruce
Daniela Molena
David L.S. Morales
David M. Overman
Sara K. Pasquali
Gregory Pattakos
T. Brett Reece
Mark D. Rodefeld
Evelio Rodriguez
Shunji Sano
Isabelle Schmitt-Opitz
Andrew J.E. Seely
Christian Shults
Ibrahim Sultan
Joanna J.M. Takkenberg
Giulia Veronesi
Song Wan
Benny Weksler
Daniel Wendt
Rashmi Yadav
Leora T. Yarboro
Sai S. Yendamuri
Jian Zhuang