Follow-Up of Lung Nodules

Fleischner Society Recommendations for Follow-Up of Lung Nodules Discovered Outside the Context of Formal Screening

The Fleischner Society is an international society founded in 1969 comprising experts in radiology, pathology, pulmonary medicine, epidemiology, and thoracic surgery with the purpose of developing consensus statements for chest imaging. The original Fleischner Society guidelines for management of solid nodules was published in 2005 and most recently was updated in 2017. The guidelines below apply to lung nodules discovered outside the context of formal lung cancer screening and must incorporate the clinician’s perception of whether the patient is at low risk (<5% chance per year) or high risk (>5% chance per year) of developing lung cancer based upon characteristics such as older age, heavy smoking, tumor margins, and upper lobe location.


MacMahon H, Naidich DP, Goo JM, et al. Guidelines for Management of Incidental Pulmonary Nodules Detected on CT Images: From the Fleischner Society 2017. Radiology 2017;284:228-243.

Supplemental material:
Accessed on May 30, 2018.